Skip to main content

Gallery: The bikes of the Tour of Flanders

Image 1 of 87

Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) also had available two Specialized S-Works Roubaix SL4 machines, each with custom long-and-low geometry

Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) also had available two Specialized S-Works Roubaix SL4 machines, each with custom long-and-low geometry
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 2 of 87

Shallow-profile Fulcrum carbon tubular wheels for Sacha Modolo (Lampre-Merida)

Shallow-profile Fulcrum carbon tubular wheels for Sacha Modolo (Lampre-Merida)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 3 of 87

John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL just before the start of Ronde van Vlaanderen

John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL just before the start of Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 4 of 87

27mm-wide Vittoria Pavé Evo CG tubulars for Giant-Shimano rider John Degenkolb

27mm-wide Vittoria Pavé Evo CG tubulars for Giant-Shimano rider John Degenkolb
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 5 of 87

Aluminum Elite Ciussi bottle cages for John Degenkolb (Giant-Shimano)

Aluminum Elite Ciussi bottle cages for John Degenkolb (Giant-Shimano)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 6 of 87

John Degenkolb (Giant-Shimano) prefers traditional-bend bars and level hoods

John Degenkolb (Giant-Shimano) prefers traditional-bend bars and level hoods
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 7 of 87

Sprint shifters are neatly tucked away on John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL. There's extra padding tucked beneath the tape up top, too

Sprint shifters are neatly tucked away on John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL. There's extra padding tucked beneath the tape up top, too
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 8 of 87

More supplemental shift buttons are positioned up top on John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL. His course notes are so long that they overflow on to the headset cap and stem faceplate. A strip of tape provides a little insurance for his SRM computer, too

More supplemental shift buttons are positioned up top on John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL. His course notes are so long that they overflow on to the headset cap and stem faceplate. A strip of tape provides a little insurance for his SRM computer, too
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 9 of 87

A PRO Turnix cut-out saddle for John Degenkolb (Giant-Shimano)

A PRO Turnix cut-out saddle for John Degenkolb (Giant-Shimano)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 10 of 87

A length of heat-shrink tubing keeps the Shimano Di2 wire neatly tucked against the rear brake housing on John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL

A length of heat-shrink tubing keeps the Shimano Di2 wire neatly tucked against the rear brake housing on John Degenkolb's (Giant-Shimano) Giant Defy Advanced SL
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 11 of 87

Custom finished Prologo saddles for the Tinkoff-Saxo team, complete with grippy CPC appliques

Custom finished Prologo saddles for the Tinkoff-Saxo team, complete with grippy CPC appliques
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 12 of 87

Daniele Bennati's (Tinkoff-Saxo) Specialized S-Works Roubaix SL4 is fitted with Zipp's SLSpeed carbon stem and SL-70 Ergo bars - just like Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)

Daniele Bennati's (Tinkoff-Saxo) Specialized S-Works Roubaix SL4 is fitted with Zipp's SLSpeed carbon stem and SL-70 Ergo bars - just like Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 13 of 87

Daniele Bennati looked to be the lone Tinkoff-Saxo rider to start Ronde van Vlaanderen aboard a Specialized S-Works Roubaix SL4

Daniele Bennati looked to be the lone Tinkoff-Saxo rider to start Ronde van Vlaanderen aboard a Specialized S-Works Roubaix SL4
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 14 of 87

Merida tempers the stiff ride of the Reacto Evo frame somewhat with the inclusion of its S-Flex seatpost, which is designed to give a little under impact

Merida tempers the stiff ride of the Reacto Evo frame somewhat with the inclusion of its S-Flex seatpost, which is designed to give a little under impact
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 15 of 87

A fleet of fetching blue-and-green Canyons for the Movistar squad

A fleet of fetching blue-and-green Canyons for the Movistar squad
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 16 of 87

Virtually no riders or teams opt for slick treads at Ronde van Vlaanderen

Virtually no riders or teams opt for slick treads at Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 17 of 87

Movistar is using Power2Max power meters this season

Movistar is using Power2Max power meters this season
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 18 of 87

Canyon frames are known for having relatively long head tubes. This Movistar rider opts for a -17° stem to get a lower bar height. Note the strip of tape securing the O.Synce computer, too

Canyon frames are known for having relatively long head tubes. This Movistar rider opts for a -17° stem to get a lower bar height. Note the strip of tape securing the O.Synce computer, too
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 19 of 87

25mm-wide Continental Competition Pro Limited ProTectioni tubulars for this Movistar rider

25mm-wide Continental Competition Pro Limited ProTectioni tubulars for this Movistar rider
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 20 of 87

Hopefully these course notes were written with waterproof ink

Hopefully these course notes were written with waterproof ink
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 21 of 87

A fleet of yellow, blue, and black Specialized S-Works machines for Tinkoff-Saxo at this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen. Riders used a mix of Tarmac, Roubaix, and Venge models

A fleet of yellow, blue, and black Specialized S-Works machines for Tinkoff-Saxo at this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen. Riders used a mix of Tarmac, Roubaix, and Venge models
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 22 of 87

Giant-Shimano's Giant Defy Advanced SL machines are widely regarded for their impressively smooth ride - just the thing for attacking the cobbled climbs of Ronde van Vlaanderen

Giant-Shimano's Giant Defy Advanced SL machines are widely regarded for their impressively smooth ride - just the thing for attacking the cobbled climbs of Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 23 of 87

Alexander Kristoff's (Katusha) Canyon Ultimate CF SLX

Alexander Kristoff's (Katusha) Canyon Ultimate CF SLX
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 24 of 87

Alexander Kristoff (Katusha) seems to prefer Ritchey's WCS Carbon Monocurve integrated fiber cockpit

Alexander Kristoff (Katusha) seems to prefer Ritchey's WCS Carbon Monocurve integrated fiber cockpit
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 25 of 87

Traditional-bend bars and a -17° stem slammed atop the headset cover for Garmin-Sharp rider Johan Vansummeren

Traditional-bend bars and a -17° stem slammed atop the headset cover for Garmin-Sharp rider Johan Vansummeren
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 26 of 87

Few bikes are built with such huge size differences between the chain stays and seat stays as the Cervélo R3, as ridden here by Johan Vansummeren (Garmin-Sharp). And yes, the team really is finally using Garmin power meter pedals after a long, long delay

Few bikes are built with such huge size differences between the chain stays and seat stays as the Cervélo R3, as ridden here by Johan Vansummeren (Garmin-Sharp). And yes, the team really is finally using Garmin power meter pedals after a long, long delay
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 27 of 87

Sylvain Chavanel (IAM Cycling) started Ronde van Vlaanderen on Scott's recently revamped Addict

Sylvain Chavanel (IAM Cycling) started Ronde van Vlaanderen on Scott's recently revamped Addict
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 28 of 87

25mm-wide FMB Paris-Roubaix tubulars on DT Swiss carbon wheels for Sylvain Chavanel (IAM Cycling)

25mm-wide FMB Paris-Roubaix tubulars on DT Swiss carbon wheels for Sylvain Chavanel (IAM Cycling)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 29 of 87

Traditional-bend aluminum bars for Sylvain Chavanel (IAM Cycling)

Traditional-bend aluminum bars for Sylvain Chavanel (IAM Cycling)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 30 of 87

Netapp-Endura raced this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen on Fuji's Altamira SL

Netapp-Endura raced this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen on Fuji's Altamira SL
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 31 of 87

FDJ riders were on a new Lapierre Xelius model. We'll have more information shortly

FDJ riders were on a new Lapierre Xelius model. We'll have more information shortly
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 32 of 87

MTN-Quebeka is sponsored by SRAM, who doesn't make a direct-mount brake caliper, so the team uses a different Madone fork than usual
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 33 of 87

Johan Vansummeren (Garmin-Sharp) set off from Brugge aboard a silver Cervélo R3

Johan Vansummeren (Garmin-Sharp) set off from Brugge aboard a silver Cervélo R3
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 34 of 87

Garmin-Sharp used a mix of Cervélo bikes, including the aero S3 and the lighter R3

Garmin-Sharp used a mix of Cervélo bikes, including the aero S3 and the lighter R3
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 35 of 87

Orica-GreenEdge bikes were dressed up with orange sidewalls courtesy of Continental

Orica-GreenEdge bikes were dressed up with orange sidewalls courtesy of Continental
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 36 of 87

These tiny course notes seem awfully hard to read, no?

These tiny course notes seem awfully hard to read, no?
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 37 of 87

These 'Mavic' tubulars on Alexander Kristoff's (Katusha) Canyon Ultimate CF SLX are more likely rebadged Hutchinson

These 'Mavic' tubulars on Alexander Kristoff's (Katusha) Canyon Ultimate CF SLX are more likely rebadged Hutchinson
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 38 of 87

Yet another set of Elite Ciussi aluminum cages. They may not be super light but they sure do hold bottles tightly

Yet another set of Elite Ciussi aluminum cages. They may not be super light but they sure do hold bottles tightly
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 39 of 87

Vladimir Isaichev (Katusha) runs his saddle far forward on the rails. And yes, that's a disguised Specialized S-Works Romin

Vladimir Isaichev (Katusha) runs his saddle far forward on the rails. And yes, that's a disguised Specialized S-Works Romin
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 40 of 87

Many Shimano Di2-equipped riders took advantage of the available sprint and climbing satellite shifters

Many Shimano Di2-equipped riders took advantage of the available sprint and climbing satellite shifters
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 41 of 87

Katusha riders set off from Brugge with these nifty rear fenders from Sencillo Bikes

Katusha riders set off from Brugge with these nifty rear fenders from Sencillo Bikes
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 42 of 87

A fleet of Scott Foils sit atop the Orica-GreenEdge team car before the start of Ronde van Vlaanderen

A fleet of Scott Foils sit atop the Orica-GreenEdge team car before the start of Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 43 of 87

While it looks nice to have rider names on the bikes up on the top tube, this location is much more useful for the mechanics when it comes time to haul one off of the team car

While it looks nice to have rider names on the bikes up on the top tube, this location is much more useful for the mechanics when it comes time to haul one off of the team car
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 44 of 87

Cofidis riders were on Look 675 bikes for this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen

Cofidis riders were on Look 675 bikes for this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 45 of 87

One wouldn't typically expect to see aero road bikes at an event like Ronde van Vlaanderen but such is the changing equipment landscape at the cobbled classics

One wouldn't typically expect to see aero road bikes at an event like Ronde van Vlaanderen but such is the changing equipment landscape at the cobbled classics
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 46 of 87

Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) had at least three spare bikes available for Ronde van Vlaanderen, including this Specialized S-Works Tarmac SL4

Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) had at least three spare bikes available for Ronde van Vlaanderen, including this Specialized S-Works Tarmac SL4
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 47 of 87

Riders used all sorts of homemade methods for keeping track of key sections of the parcours

Riders used all sorts of homemade methods for keeping track of key sections of the parcours
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 48 of 87

This Europcar Colnago's Campagnolo Super Record EPS front derailleur is installed with a bit of friction tape to keep it from moving. In keeping with the team's French tendencies, there's also an Aivee adjustable chain catcher - just in case

This Europcar Colnago's Campagnolo Super Record EPS front derailleur is installed with a bit of friction tape to keep it from moving. In keeping with the team's French tendencies, there's also an Aivee adjustable chain catcher - just in case
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 49 of 87

Most of the Look KéO Blade 2 pedals we spotted in the peloton were stuck at awkward angles. As compared to earlier editions, these seem to have stickier bearings that don't allow the bodies to hang down for easier entry

Most of the Look KéO Blade 2 pedals we spotted in the peloton were stuck at awkward angles. As compared to earlier editions, these seem to have stickier bearings that don't allow the bodies to hang down for easier entry
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 50 of 87

Sorry road tubeless fans, another passes by without any teams using the technology on race bikes at the cobbled classics

Sorry road tubeless fans, another passes by without any teams using the technology on race bikes at the cobbled classics
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 51 of 87

Other Europcar riders such as Antoine Duchesne (132) and Tony Hurel (135) used Colnago's C59 and M10 frames, respectively

Other Europcar riders such as Antoine Duchesne (132) and Tony Hurel (135) used Colnago's C59 and M10 frames, respectively
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 52 of 87

Relatively shallow carbon tubular wheels were more or less standard issue at this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen

Relatively shallow carbon tubular wheels were more or less standard issue at this year's Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 53 of 87

Europcar riders were also mixed on their choice of drivetrains with some opting for electronic setups from Campagnolo and others sticking to traditional mechanical groups

Europcar riders were also mixed on their choice of drivetrains with some opting for electronic setups from Campagnolo and others sticking to traditional mechanical groups
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 54 of 87

There's certainly no mistaking the make of these pedals

There's certainly no mistaking the make of these pedals
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 55 of 87

Europcar riders used several different Colnago frames at Ronde van Vlaanderen such as the company's endurance-focused CX-Zero, built with a softer ride and slightly longer head tube than usual

Europcar riders used several different Colnago frames at Ronde van Vlaanderen such as the company's endurance-focused CX-Zero, built with a softer ride and slightly longer head tube than usual
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 56 of 87

Many racing fans will recognize this paint job

Many racing fans will recognize this paint job
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 57 of 87

Specialized's new team tires feature the company's own tread compound and pattern glued on to FMB handmade cotton tubular casings

Specialized's new team tires feature the company's own tread compound and pattern glued on to FMB handmade cotton tubular casings
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 58 of 87

While many riders were on Look's newer KéO Blade 2 pedals, Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) opted for the original version

While many riders were on Look's newer KéO Blade 2 pedals, Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) opted for the original version
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 59 of 87

SRAM Red 22 components and Gore Ride-On sealed derailleur cables and housing for Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)

SRAM Red 22 components and Gore Ride-On sealed derailleur cables and housing for Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 60 of 87

Tom Boonen's (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) Specialized S-Works Tarmac SL4 was fitted with Zipp's ultra-stiff SLSprint carbon stem and SL-70 Ergo bars, covered with two layers of Specialized S-Wrap Roubaix tape

Tom Boonen's (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) Specialized S-Works Tarmac SL4 was fitted with Zipp's ultra-stiff SLSprint carbon stem and SL-70 Ergo bars, covered with two layers of Specialized S-Wrap Roubaix tape
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 61 of 87

Tacx Tao aluminum cages for Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)

Tacx Tao aluminum cages for Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 62 of 87

177.5mm-long Specialized carbon fiber crankarms for Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)

177.5mm-long Specialized carbon fiber crankarms for Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 63 of 87

Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) uses a 155mm-wide Specialized S-Works Romin saddle

Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) uses a 155mm-wide Specialized S-Works Romin saddle
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 64 of 87

Even Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) turned to an 11-28T cassette for Ronde van Vlaanderen's nasty cobbled climbs

Even Tom Boonen (Omega Pharma-QuickStep) turned to an 11-28T cassette for Ronde van Vlaanderen's nasty cobbled climbs
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 65 of 87

Christmas seems to come twice for FMB: once during the cobbled classics, and again come 'cross season

Christmas seems to come twice for FMB: once during the cobbled classics, and again come 'cross season
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 66 of 87

Double-wrapped bars provide a little bit of extra cushioning. Cobbles are unbelievably punishing on the hands

Double-wrapped bars provide a little bit of extra cushioning. Cobbles are unbelievably punishing on the hands
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 67 of 87

Ag2r-La Mondiale is using fi'zi:k cockpits and Bryton computers

Ag2r-La Mondiale is using fi'zi:k cockpits and Bryton computers
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 68 of 87

Campagnolo Bora Ultra Two carbon tubular wheels and 28mm-wide Continental Competition Pro Limited PTX tires for Jurgen Roelandts (Lotto-Belisol)

Campagnolo Bora Ultra Two carbon tubular wheels and 28mm-wide Continental Competition Pro Limited PTX tires for Jurgen Roelandts (Lotto-Belisol)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 69 of 87

Unlike most chain catchers that basically just guide the chain back on to the inner ring in the event of an overshift, Campagnolo's version more closely profiles both chainrings so that the chain can never move that far to the inside

Unlike most chain catchers that basically just guide the chain back on to the inner ring in the event of an overshift, Campagnolo's version more closely profiles both chainrings so that the chain can never move that far to the inside
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 70 of 87

Lampre-Merida bikes were outfitted with Rotor's new power meters

Lampre-Merida bikes were outfitted with Rotor's new power meters
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 71 of 87

Rotor is another option that offers separate left and right power measurements. Note the direct-mount Shimano brake caliper on Lampre-Merida's new Merida Reacto Evo frame, too

Rotor is another option that offers separate left and right power measurements. Note the direct-mount Shimano brake caliper on Lampre-Merida's new Merida Reacto Evo frame, too
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 72 of 87

Lampre-Merida's Merida Reacto Evo frames also use direct-mount front brake calipers. An inline quick-release is used for the rear caliper for faster wheel changes

Lampre-Merida's Merida Reacto Evo frames also use direct-mount front brake calipers. An inline quick-release is used for the rear caliper for faster wheel changes
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 73 of 87

Double-wrapped bars for Lampre-Merida rider Sacha Modolo

Double-wrapped bars for Lampre-Merida rider Sacha Modolo
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 74 of 87

Elite Ciussi aluminum cages are a common sight around this time of year

Elite Ciussi aluminum cages are a common sight around this time of year
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 75 of 87

Sacha Modolo's (Lampre-Merida) Merida Reacto Evo for Ronde van Vlaanderen

Sacha Modolo's (Lampre-Merida) Merida Reacto Evo for Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 76 of 87

Two layers of Lizard Skins DSP tape and traditional-bend handlebars are the way to go for Lotto-Belisol's Jurgen Roelandts

Two layers of Lizard Skins DSP tape and traditional-bend handlebars are the way to go for Lotto-Belisol's Jurgen Roelandts
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 77 of 87

A carbon-railed Selle San Marco saddle for Jurgen Roelandts (Lotto-Belisol)

A carbon-railed Selle San Marco saddle for Jurgen Roelandts (Lotto-Belisol)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 78 of 87

Ridley says its Fenix model offers a smoother ride and more tire clearance than its more traditional race options

Ridley says its Fenix model offers a smoother ride and more tire clearance than its more traditional race options
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 79 of 87

A couple of Ag2r-La Mondiale riders were spotted at the start using fi'zi:k's long-retired Arione k:1 saddle

A couple of Ag2r-La Mondiale riders were spotted at the start using fi'zi:k's long-retired Arione k:1 saddle
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 80 of 87

Ag2r-La Mondiale's new Focus Izalco Max framesets feature slimmed-down forks that look to be more comfortable than previous versions

Ag2r-La Mondiale's new Focus Izalco Max framesets feature slimmed-down forks that look to be more comfortable than previous versions
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 81 of 87

Focus Izalco Max framesets and Fulcrum carbon wheels across the board for Ag2r-La Mondiale

Focus Izalco Max framesets and Fulcrum carbon wheels across the board for Ag2r-La Mondiale
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 82 of 87

While standard Schwalbe One HT tubulars are all black, these team-edition tires get tan sidewalls, along with what appears to be a hand-glued tread cap

While standard Schwalbe One HT tubulars are all black, these team-edition tires get tan sidewalls, along with what appears to be a hand-glued tread cap
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 83 of 87

Another set of awkwardly positioned Look KéO Blade 2 pedals

Another set of awkwardly positioned Look KéO Blade 2 pedals
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 84 of 87

Jurgen Roelandts' (Lotto-Belisol) Ridley Fenix just before the start of Ronde van Vlaanderen

Jurgen Roelandts' (Lotto-Belisol) Ridley Fenix just before the start of Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 85 of 87

Segmented aluminum brake housing for Jurgen Roelandts (Lotto-Belisol)

Segmented aluminum brake housing for Jurgen Roelandts (Lotto-Belisol)
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 86 of 87

Tacx Tao Carbon bottle cages apparently hold well enough to handle Ronde van Vlaanderen

Tacx Tao Carbon bottle cages apparently hold well enough to handle Ronde van Vlaanderen
(Image credit: James Huang)
Image 87 of 87

28mm-wide Continental Competition Pro Limited PT tubulars for Sacha Modolo (Lampre-Merida)

28mm-wide Continental Competition Pro Limited PT tubulars for Sacha Modolo (Lampre-Merida)
(Image credit: James Huang)

Still floating on cloud nine after watching this year's Tour of Flanders? Want to see more of the bikes the riders used in the race? Well then, get comfy because we've got a massive gallery to share with you, including the race bikes of Tom Boonen, Alexander Kristoff, John Degenkolb, Sylvain Chavanel, and more.

 Click here for our gallery.