The World Anti-Doping Agency has made some changes to its prohibited list, effective January 1, 2011. UK Anti-Doping has noted some of the additions and deletions, most notably with changes being made to the legal usage amount of the asthma medication Salbutamol, for which Alessandro Petacchi was suspended in 2008.
It will be forbidden to use any substances which are still in pre-clinical or clinical development, and which have thus not yet been approved for human therapeutic use. In addition, it is not allowed to use demospressin, a synthetic hormone which reduces urine production.
Methylhexaneamine – a substance increasingly found in supplements moves from a non-specified to a specified substance which, whilst still prohibited, carries a genuine possibility of inadvertently entering the system. In October of this year it was revealed that former Caisse d’Epargne rider Rui Costa and his brother Mario had tested positive for the substance.
The new classification still requires athletes to prove that they did not intend to enhance performance "to the satisfaction of the results management authority" in order to receive a reduced sanction.
The following were taken off of the probhitied list: glucocorticosteroids by inhalation or administered by localised injection, as well as platelet-derived preparations, and salmeterol.
Changes were also made concerning the use of salbutamol. It is allowed in limited usage, but not above a maximum of 1600 micrograms over 24 hours.
That is the medication for which Alessandro Petacchi tested positive in 2007. During the Giro d'Italia, doping controls showed a finding of 1352 micrograms, with the limit at the time being only 1000 mg.
The new WADA code in full
The official text of the Prohibited List shall be maintained by WADA and shall be published in English and French. In the event of any conflict between the English and French versions, the English version shall prevail.
This List shall come into effect on 1 January 2011The 2011 Prohibited List 18 September 2010 2
THE 2011 PROHIBITED LIST WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE
Valid 1 January 2011
All Prohibited Substances shall be considered as “Specified Substances” except Substances in classes S1, S2.1 to S2.5, S.4.4 and S6.a, and Prohibited Methods M1, M2 and M3.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED AT ALL TIMES (IN- AND OUT-OF-COMPETITION)
S0. NON-APPROVED SUBSTANCES
Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (i.e. drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued) is prohibited at all times.
S1. ANABOLIC AGENTS
Anabolic agents are prohibited.
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
a. Exogenous* AAS, including:
1-androstenediol (5α-androst-1-ene-3β,17β-diol ); 1-androstenedione (5α-androst-1-ene-3,17-dione); bolandiol (19-norandrostenediol); bolasterone; boldenone; boldione (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione); calusterone; clostebol; danazol (17α-ethynyl-17β-hydroxyandrost-4-eno[2,3-d]isoxazole); dehydrochlormethyltestosterone (4-chloro-17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); desoxymethyltestosterone (17α-methyl-5α-androst-2-en-17β-ol); drostanolone; ethylestrenol (19-nor-17α-pregn-4-en-17-ol); fluoxymesterone; formebolone; furazabol (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-The 2011 Prohibited List 18 September 2010 3
androstano[2,3-c]-furazan); gestrinone; 4-hydroxytestosterone (4,17β-dihydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one); mestanolone; mesterolone; metenolone; methandienone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-one); methandriol; methasterone (2α, 17α-dimethyl-5α-androstane-3-one-17β-ol); methyldienolone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9-dien-3-one); methyl-1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methyl-5α-androst-1-en-3-one); methylnortestosterone (17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestr-4-en-3-one); methyltestosterone; metribolone (methyltrienolone, 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one); mibolerone; nandrolone; 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione); norboletone; norclostebol; norethandrolone; oxabolone; oxandrolone; oxymesterone; oxymetholone; prostanozol (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstano[3,2-c] pyrazole); quinbolone; stanozolol; stenbolone; 1-testosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androst-1-en-3-one); tetrahydrogestrinone (18a-homo-pregna-4,9,11-trien-17β-ol-3-one); trenbolone; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
b. Endogenous** AAS when administered exogenously: androstenediol (androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol); androstenedione (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione); dihydrotestosterone (17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one); prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA); testosterone
and the following metabolites and isomers:
5α-androstane-3α,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17α-diol; 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-4-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-4-ene-3β,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17α-diol; androst-5-ene-3α,17β-diol; androst-5-ene-3β,17α-diol; 4-androstenediol (androst-4-ene-3β,17β-diol); 5-androstenedione (androst-5-ene-3,17-dione); epi-dihydrotestosterone; epitestosterone; 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one; 19-norandrosterone; 19-noretiocholanolone.
2. Other Anabolic Agents, including but not limited to:
Clenbuterol, selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), tibolone, zeranol, zilpaterol.
For purposes of this section:
* “exogenous” refers to a substance which is not ordinarily capable of being produced by the body naturally.
** “endogenous” refers to a substance which is capable of being produced by the body naturally.The 2011 Prohibited List 18 September 2010 4
S2. PEPTIDE HORMONES, GROWTH FACTORS AND RELATED SUBSTANCES
The following substances and their releasing factors are prohibited:
1. Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents [e.g. erythropoietin (EPO), darbepoetin (dEPO), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (CERA), peginesatide (Hematide)];
2. Chorionic Gonadotrophin (CG) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) in males;
5. Growth Hormone (GH), Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), Mechano Growth Factors (MGFs), Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Vascular-Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) as well as any other growth factor affecting muscle, tendon or ligament protein synthesis/degradation, vascularisation, energy utilization, regenerative capacity or fibre type switching;
and other substances with similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
S3. BETA-2 AGONISTS
All beta-2 agonists (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited except salbutamol (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) and salmeterol when taken by inhalation in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommended therapeutic regime.
The presence of salbutamol in urine in excess of 1000 ng/mL is presumed not to be an intended therapeutic use of the substance and will be considered as an Adverse Analytical Finding unless the Athlete proves, through a controlled pharmacokinetic study, that the abnormal result was the consequence of the use of a therapeutic dose (maximum 1600 micrograms over 24 hours) of inhaled salbutamol.
The 2011 Prohibited List 18 September 2010 5
S4. HORMONE ANTAGONISTS AND MODULATORS
The following classes are prohibited:
1. Aromatase inhibitors including, but not limited to: aminoglutethimide, anastrozole, androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (androstatrienedione), 4-androstene-3,6,17 trione (6-oxo), exemestane, formestane, letrozole, testolactone.
2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) including, but not limited to: raloxifene, tamoxifen, toremifene.
3. Other anti-estrogenic substances including, but not limited to: clomiphene, cyclofenil, fulvestrant.
4. Agents modifying myostatin function(s) including, but not limited, to: myostatin inhibitors.
S5. DIURETICS AND OTHER MASKING AGENTS
Masking agents are prohibited. They include:
Diuretics, desmopressin, plasma expanders (e.g. glycerol; intravenous administration of albumin, dextran, hydroxyethyl starch and mannitol), probenecid; and other substances with similar biological effect(s).
Acetazolamide, amiloride, bumetanide, canrenone, chlorthalidone, etacrynic acid, furosemide, indapamide, metolazone, spironolactone, thiazides (e.g. bendroflumethiazide, chlorothiazide, hydrochlorothiazide), triamterene; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s) (except drosperinone, pamabrom and topical dorzolamide and brinzolamide, which are not prohibited).
The use In- and Out-of-Competition, as applicable, of any quantity of a substance subject to threshold limits (i.e. salbutamol, morphine, cathine, ephedrine, methylephedrine and pseudoephedrine) in conjunction with a diuretic or other masking agent requires the deliverance of a specific Therapeutic Use Exemption for that substance in addition to the one granted for the diuretic or other masking agent.
PROHIBITED METHODS M1. ENHANCEMENT OF OXYGEN TRANSFER
The following are prohibited:
1. Blood doping, including the use of autologous, homologous or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin.
2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including, but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
M2. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MANIPULATION
The following is prohibited:
1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Control is prohibited. These include but are not limited to catheterisation, urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
2. Intravenous infusions are prohibited except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
3. Sequential withdrawal, manipulation and reinfusion of whole blood into the circulatory system is prohibited.
M3. GENE DOPING
The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:
1. The transfer of nucleic acids or nucleic acid sequences;
2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells;
3. The use of agents that directly or indirectly affect functions known to influence performance by altering gene expression. For example, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor δ (PPARδ) agonists (e.g. GW 1516) and PPARδ-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) axis agonists (e.g. AICAR) are prohibited.
SUBSTANCES AND METHODS PROHIBITED IN-COMPETITION
In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited In-Competition:
All stimulants (including both optical isomers where relevant) are prohibited, except imidazole derivatives for topical use and those stimulants included in the 2011 Monitoring Program*.
a: Non-Specified Stimulants:
Adrafinil; amfepramone; amiphenazole; amphetamine; amphetaminil; benfluorex; benzphetamine; benzylpiperazine; bromantan; clobenzorex; cocaine; cropropamide; crotetamide; dimethylamphetamine; etilamphetamine; famprofazone; fencamine; fenetylline; fenfluramine; fenproporex; furfenorex; mefenorex; mephentermine; mesocarb; methamphetamine(d-); p-methylamphetamine; methylenedioxyamphetamine; methylenedioxymethamphetamine; modafinil; norfenfluramine; phendimetrazine; phenmetrazine; phentermine; 4-phenylpiracetam (carphedon); prenylamine; prolintane.
A stimulant not expressly listed in this section is a Specified Substance.
b: Specified Stimulants (examples):
Adrenaline**; cathine***; ephedrine****; etamivan; etilefrine; fenbutrazate; fencamfamin; heptaminol; isometheptene; levmetamfetamine; meclofenoxate; methylephedrine****; methylhexaneamine (dimethylpentylamine); methylphenidate; nikethamide; norfenefrine; octopamine; oxilofrine; parahydroxyamphetamine; pemoline; pentetrazol; phenpromethamine; propylhexedrine; pseudoephedrine*****; selegiline; sibutramine; strychnine; tuaminoheptane; and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s).
* The following substances included in the 2011 Monitoring Program (bupropion, caffeine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pipradol, synephrine) are not considered as Prohibited Substances.
** Adrenaline associated with local anaesthetic agents or by local administration (e.g. nasal, ophthalmologic) is not prohibited.
*** Cathine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 5 micrograms per milliliter.
**** Each of ephedrine and methylephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 10 micrograms per milliliter.
***** Pseudoephedrine is prohibited when its concentration in urine is greater than 150 micrograms per milliliter.
The following are prohibited:
Buprenorphine, dextromoramide, diamorphine (heroin), fentanyl and its derivatives, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, pentazocine, pethidine.
Natural (e.g. cannabis, hashish, marijuana) or synthetic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabimimetics [e.g. “Spice” (containing JWH018, JWH073), HU-210] are prohibited.
All glucocorticosteroids are prohibited when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes.
SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS
Alcohol (ethanol) is prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports. Detection will be conducted by analysis of breath and/or blood. The doping violation threshold (haematological values) is 0.10 g/L.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA)
• Automobile (FIA)
• Karate (WKF)
• Motorcycling (FIM)
• Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)
• Powerboating (UIM)
Unless otherwise specified, beta-blockers are prohibited In-Competition only, in the following sports.
• Aeronautic (FAI)
• Archery (FITA) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Automobile (FIA)
• Billiards and Snooker (WCBS)
• Bobsleigh and Skeleton (FIBT)
• Boules (CMSB)
• Bridge (FMB)
• Curling (WCF)
• Darts (WDF)
• Golf (IGF)
• Motorcycling (FIM)
• Modern Pentathlon (UIPM) for disciplines involving shooting
• Ninepin and Tenpin Bowling (FIQ)
• Powerboating (UIM)
• Sailing (ISAF) for match race helms only
• Shooting (ISSF, IPC) (also prohibited Out-of-Competition)
• Skiing/Snowboarding (FIS) in ski jumping, freestyle aerials/halfpipe and snowboard halfpipe/big air
• Wrestling (FILA)
Beta-blockers include, but are not limited to, the following:
Acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, bunolol, carteolol, carvedilol, celiprolol, esmolol, labetalol, levobunolol, metipranolol, metoprolol, nadolol, oxprenolol, pindolol, propranolol, sotalol, timolol.